Home
Reading
Searching
Subscribe
Sponsors
Statistics
Posting
Contact
Spam
Lists
Links
About
Hosting
Filtering
Features Download
Marketing
Archives
FAQ
Blog
 
Gmane
From: Steven Rostedt <rostedt <at> goodmis.org>
Subject: [PATCH v3] printk: Have printk() never buffer its data
Newsgroups: gmane.linux.kernel
Date: Monday 25th June 2012 19:05:42 UTC (over 4 years ago)
Fengguang Wu had a config that caused the system to lockup. It reported:

[    6.086395] type=2000 audit(1339501575.085:1): initialized
[    6.116356] Kprobe smoke test started
[    6.125915] Kprobe smoke test passed successfully
[    6.127478] rcu-torture:--- Start of test: nreaders=2 nfakewriters=4
stat_interval=0 verbose=0 test_no_idle_hz=0 shuffle_interval=3 stutter=5
irqreader=1 fqs_duration=0
+fqs_holdoff=0 fqs_stutter=3 test_boost=1/0 test_boost_interval=7
test_boost_duration=4 shutdown_secs=0 onoff_interval=0 onoff_holdoff=0

and then froze. So naturally, the suspected bug was with rcu-torture.
Fengguang did a git bisect and discovered that the crash came with a
function trace update. He also noticed that if he reverted that update,
the system got farther and showed:

[    1.611901] Testing tracer function: PASSED

His time was wasted by the fact that the function tracing self test
first prints:

  "Testing tracer function: "

then runs the test, and if it succeeds, it prints "PASSED", giving us
the nice output you see above.

But with the new printk() changes, text without a newline gets buffered
and does not print out to the console at the location of the printk.
This caused the "Testing tracer function: " not to print out and because
the test caused the kernel to lock up, we are clueless to the fact that
the problem was with the function tracer test and not the rcu_torture
test. As it made sense that the rcu_torture test could lock up the
system, many kernel developer hours were wasted chasing the wrong wild
goose.

If the "Testing tracer function: " had printed out in the first place,
we would have caught the correct wild goose and saved precious kernel
developer's time.

This brings back the old way of printk() that always prints to the console
and does not buffer the data. As printk_emit() is used by other
'facilities'
this only affects printk(), but keeps pretty much the new behavior.

The printk() state of the last print is kept around to know how to print
the new lines. If the printk does not have a new line, the state is
stored in msg_print_text() and if a prefix is to be printed next, it
forces a newline. This keeps the new behavior when multiple partial prints
are
happening across CPUs. Each one will have its own line (like it does
today).

I hooked onto the 'msg->level' infrastructure, which already is used for
both the facility and level. I reserved the top 4 bits as flags for
printk_emit()
to pass information to the msg_print_text() function which is called at a
later
time via console_unlock().  The facility is limited to 0x1ff which should
be
more than enough.

I tested this out, and now the lockup shows:

[    9.018231] Kprobe smoke test passed successfully
[    9.023084] rcu-torture:--- Start of test: nreaders=4 nfakewriters=4
stat_interval=0 verbose=0 test_no_idle_hz=0 shuffle_interval=3 stutter=5
irqreader=1 fqs_duration=0 fqs_hold
off=0 fqs_stutter=3 test_boost=1/0 test_boost_interval=7
test_boost_duration=4 shutdown_secs=0 onoff_interval=0 onoff_holdoff=0
[    9.066065] Testing tracer function:

To prevent the flush to cause the next printk to have a timestamp that
would produce the following:

[    6.834073] Testing tracer function: [    7.136194] PASSED

I made the KERN_CONT ("") use the facility as well to pass info to
not print the timestamp. This fixes the abve issue to print:

[    1.291025] Testing tracer function: PASSED

When multiple SMP calls take place, this happens:

[    1.310024] Testing tracer function: PASSED
[    1.648504] Testing dynamic ftrace: PASSED
[    2.099752] Testing dynamic ftrace ops #1: (1 0 1 1 0) (1 1 2 1 0)
[    2.247911] Refined TSC clocksource calibration: 2659.999 MHz.
[    2.254229] Switching to clocksource tsc
(2 1 3 1 22) (2 2 4 1 4044) PASSED
[    2.572013] Testing dynamic ftrace ops #2: (1 0 1 11 0) (1 1 2 4623 0)
(2 1 3 10096 170) (2 2 4 16097 6162) PASSED
[    3.106015] Testing tracer irqsoff: PASSED

Link: http:[email protected]m

Cc: Linus Torvalds 
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <[email protected]>
Cc: "kay.sievers" 
Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" 
Cc: Fengguang Wu 
Cc: Ingo Molnar 
Cc: Andrew Morton 
Cc: Joe Perches <[email protected]>
Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt 
---
 kernel/printk.c |  117
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------
 1 files changed, 91 insertions(+), 26 deletions(-)

diff --git a/kernel/printk.c b/kernel/printk.c
index 32462d2..e4da1a0 100644
--- a/kernel/printk.c
+++ b/kernel/printk.c
@@ -140,9 +140,9 @@ static int console_may_schedule;
  * indicates a wrap-around to the beginning of the buffer.
  *
  * Every record carries the monotonic timestamp in microseconds, as well
as
- * the standard userspace syslog level and syslog facility. The usual
- * kernel messages use LOG_KERN; userspace-injected messages always carry
- * a matching syslog facility, by default LOG_USER. The origin of every
+ * the standard userspace syslog level, kernel flags and syslog facility.
+ * The usual kernel messages use LOG_KERN; userspace-injected messages
always
+ * carry a matching syslog facility, by default LOG_USER. The origin of
every
  * message can be reliably determined that way.
  *
  * The human readable log message directly follows the message header. The
@@ -198,9 +198,21 @@ struct log {
 	u16 len;		/* length of entire record */
 	u16 text_len;		/* length of text buffer */
 	u16 dict_len;		/* length of dictionary buffer */
-	u16 level;		/* syslog level + facility */
+	u16 level;		/* syslog level + facility + flags */
 };
 
+#define FACILITY_MAX		0x1ff
+#define FACILITY_SHIFT		3
+#define FLAGS_SHIFT		12
+
+#define MSG_FACILITY(msg)	(((msg) >> FACILITY_SHIFT) & FACILITY_MAX)
+#define MSG_FLAGS(msg)		((msg) >> FLAGS_SHIFT)
+#define MSG_LEVEL(msg)		((msg) & 7)
+
+#define LOG_NONL_NOPREFIX	3
+#define LOG_NONL		2
+#define LOG_NOPREFIX		1
+
 /*
  * The logbuf_lock protects kmsg buffer, indices, counters. It is also
  * used in interesting ways to provide interlocking in console_unlock();
@@ -285,7 +297,7 @@ static u32 log_next(u32 idx)
 }
 
 /* insert record into the buffer, discard old ones, update heads */
-static void log_store(int facility, int level,
+static void log_store(int facility, int level, int flags,
 		      const char *dict, u16 dict_len,
 		      const char *text, u16 text_len)
 {
@@ -329,7 +341,8 @@ static void log_store(int facility, int level,
 	msg->text_len = text_len;
 	memcpy(log_dict(msg), dict, dict_len);
 	msg->dict_len = dict_len;
-	msg->level = (facility << 3) | (level & 7);
+	msg->level = (flags << FLAGS_SHIFT) |
+		((facility & FACILITY_MAX) << FACILITY_SHIFT) | (level & 7);
 	msg->ts_nsec = local_clock();
 	memset(log_dict(msg) + dict_len, 0, pad_len);
 	msg->len = sizeof(struct log) + text_len + dict_len + pad_len;
@@ -385,9 +398,9 @@ static ssize_t devkmsg_writev(struct kiocb *iocb, const
struct iovec *iv,
 
 		i = simple_strtoul(line+1, &endp, 10);
 		if (endp && endp[0] == '>') {
-			level = i & 7;
-			if (i >> 3)
-				facility = i >> 3;
+			level = MSG_LEVEL(i);
+			if (MSG_FACILITY(i))
+				facility = MSG_FACILITY(i);
 			endp++;
 			len -= endp - line;
 			line = endp;
@@ -819,6 +832,7 @@ static size_t print_prefix(const struct log *msg, bool
syslog, char *buf)
 static size_t msg_print_text(const struct log *msg, bool syslog,
 			     char *buf, size_t size)
 {
+	static bool last_newline = true;
 	const char *text = log_text(msg);
 	size_t text_size = msg->text_len;
 	size_t len = 0;
@@ -836,14 +850,35 @@ static size_t msg_print_text(const struct log *msg,
bool syslog,
 		}
 
 		if (buf) {
-			if (print_prefix(msg, syslog, NULL) +
-			    text_len + 1>= size - len)
-				break;
+			bool newline = true;
+			bool prefix = true;
+			int flags = MSG_FLAGS(msg->level);
+
+			if (flags & LOG_NOPREFIX)
+				prefix = false;
+			if (flags & LOG_NONL)
+				newline = false;
+
+			if (prefix) {
+				/*
+				 * Force newline, for last line if this line
+				 * is printing out a prefix.
+				 */
+				if (!last_newline)
+					buf[len++] = '\n';
+
+				if (print_prefix(msg, syslog, NULL) +
+				    text_len + 1 >= size - len)
+					break;
+
+				len += print_prefix(msg, syslog, buf + len);
+			}
 
-			len += print_prefix(msg, syslog, buf + len);
 			memcpy(buf + len, text, text_len);
 			len += text_len;
-			buf[len++] = '\n';
+			if (newline)
+				buf[len++] = '\n';
+			last_newline = newline;
 		} else {
 			/* SYSLOG_ACTION_* buffer size only calculation */
 			len += print_prefix(msg, syslog, NULL);
@@ -1267,6 +1302,7 @@ asmlinkage int vprintk_emit(int facility, int level,
 	static char cont_buf[LOG_LINE_MAX];
 	static size_t cont_len;
 	static int cont_level;
+	static bool cont_prefix;
 	static struct task_struct *cont_task;
 	static char textbuf[LOG_LINE_MAX];
 	char *text = textbuf;
@@ -1275,8 +1311,12 @@ asmlinkage int vprintk_emit(int facility, int level,
 	int this_cpu;
 	bool newline = false;
 	bool prefix = false;
+	bool flush;
 	int printed_len = 0;
 
+	/* output from printk() always flush to console (no line buffering) */
+	flush = (facility == 0);
+
 	boot_delay_msec();
 	printk_delay();
 
@@ -1313,7 +1353,7 @@ asmlinkage int vprintk_emit(int facility, int level,
 		recursion_bug = 0;
 		printed_len += strlen(recursion_msg);
 		/* emit KERN_CRIT message */
-		log_store(0, 2, NULL, 0, recursion_msg, printed_len);
+		log_store(0, 2, 0, NULL, 0, recursion_msg, printed_len);
 	}
 
 	/*
@@ -1350,26 +1390,47 @@ asmlinkage int vprintk_emit(int facility, int
level,
 		newline = true;
 	}
 
+	/* Force prefix for new task */
+	if (cont_task != current)
+		prefix = true;
+
 	if (!newline) {
-		if (cont_len && (prefix || cont_task != current)) {
+
+		if (cont_len && prefix) {
 			/*
 			 * Flush earlier buffer, which is either from a
 			 * different thread, or when we got a new prefix.
 			 */
-			log_store(facility, cont_level, NULL, 0, cont_buf, cont_len);
+			log_store(facility, cont_level, 0, NULL, 0, cont_buf, cont_len);
 			cont_len = 0;
 		}
 
 		if (!cont_len) {
 			cont_level = level;
 			cont_task = current;
+			cont_prefix = prefix;
 		}
 
-		/* buffer or append to earlier buffer from the same thread */
-		if (cont_len + text_len > sizeof(cont_buf))
-			text_len = sizeof(cont_buf) - cont_len;
-		memcpy(cont_buf + cont_len, text, text_len);
-		cont_len += text_len;
+		/* For printk() callers, always output to the console */
+		if (flush) {
+			int flag = LOG_NONL;
+
+			/*
+			 * If the buffered string was KERN_CONT,
+			 * do not print prefix.
+			 */
+			if (!prefix)
+				flag = LOG_NONL_NOPREFIX;
+
+			log_store(0, cont_level, flag, NULL, 0, text, text_len);
+		} else {
+
+			/* buffer or append to earlier buffer from the same thread */
+			if (cont_len + text_len > sizeof(cont_buf))
+				text_len = sizeof(cont_buf) - cont_len;
+			memcpy(cont_buf + cont_len, text, text_len);
+			cont_len += text_len;
+		}
 	} else {
 		if (cont_len && cont_task == current) {
 			if (prefix) {
@@ -1378,7 +1439,7 @@ asmlinkage int vprintk_emit(int facility, int level,
 				 * either got no earlier newline, or we race
 				 * with an interrupt.
 				 */
-				log_store(facility, cont_level,
+				log_store(facility, cont_level, 0,
 					  NULL, 0, cont_buf, cont_len);
 				cont_len = 0;
 			}
@@ -1388,14 +1449,18 @@ asmlinkage int vprintk_emit(int facility, int
level,
 				text_len = sizeof(cont_buf) - cont_len;
 			memcpy(cont_buf + cont_len, text, text_len);
 			cont_len += text_len;
-			log_store(facility, cont_level,
+			log_store(facility, cont_level, 0,
 				  NULL, 0, cont_buf, cont_len);
 			cont_len = 0;
 			cont_task = NULL;
 			printed_len = cont_len;
 		} else {
+			int flag = 0;
+
 			/* ordinary single and terminated line */
-			log_store(facility, level,
+			if (!prefix && !facility && cont_task == current)
+				flag = LOG_NOPREFIX;
+			log_store(facility, level, flag,
 				  dict, dictlen, text, text_len);
 			printed_len = text_len;
 		}
@@ -1817,7 +1882,7 @@ again:
 			break;
 
 		msg = log_from_idx(console_idx);
-		level = msg->level & 7;
+		level = MSG_LEVEL(msg->level);
 
 		len = msg_print_text(msg, false, text, sizeof(text));
 
-- 
1.7.3.4
 
CD: 4ms