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From: Nicolas Goaziou <n.goaziou <at> gmail.com>
Subject: [ANN] Merge of new export framework on Wednesday
Newsgroups: gmane.emacs.orgmode
Date: Sunday 3rd February 2013 19:00:44 UTC (over 3 years ago)

Table of Contents

1 To Whom Used the Experimental Version
2 What’s New
.. 2.1 New Back-Ends
.. 2.2 Drawer Handling
.. 2.3 Special Blocks
.. 2.4 Improved Asynchronous Export
.. 2.5 Smart Quotes
.. 2.6 Cross Referencing
.. 2.7 Lists of Tables, Lists of Listings
3 Installation
4 Configuration
.. 4.1 Variables
.. 4.2 Hooks
.. 4.3 Filters
.. 4.4 Forking a Back-End
5 Caveats
6 Footnotes


  I will install the new export framework along with a set of back-ends
Wednesday evening (UTC).  Here are a few notes to help you make the

1 To Whom Used the Experimental Version

    The merge implies some renaming for symbols and files. More
  precisely, “e-” is removed from symbols like variable names,
  and back-ends and “org-e-” becomes “ox-” in files. To sum it up:

                  Old name                      New name         
                   e-latex                       latex           
                 org-e-latex                    ox-latex         
        org-export-latex-packages-alist  org-latex-packages-alist 

    Be sure to check filters and requires in your configuration files.

2 What’s New

    Even though the internals are completely different, the new exporter
  mostly behaves like its predecessor.  There are only a few noticeable

2.1 New Back-Ends

    New back-ends come with the new export engine:

  • Markdown back-end (name: `md')
  • Texinfo back-end (name: `texinfo')
  • Man back-end (name: `man')

    Most of the other back-ends have been rewritten from scratch, too.

2.2 Drawer Handling

    By default, every drawer but “properties” and “logbook” has
  contents exported.  See `org-export-with-drawers' variable.

2.3 Special Blocks

    The `org-special-blocks.el' library, which has been moved to
  “contrib/”, is obsolete since its features are included in the new
  export framework.

2.4 Improved Asynchronous Export

    Export can be asynchronous independently on the type of the source
  or output (temporary buffer or file).  A special interface, called
  “The Export Stack”, is used to view the output.  See
  `org-export-in-background' variable.

2.5 Smart Quotes

    All back-ends have support for “smart” quotes, according to
  `org-export-default-language' value or the `LANGUAGE' specifications
  in the buffer.  See `org-export-with-smart-quotes'.
    As of now, only “de”, “en”, “es” and “fr” languages are
  but it’s easy to add more.  See `org-export-smart-quotes-alist'.  Do
  not hesitate to contribute more languages.

2.6 Cross Referencing

    Export has now full support for cross references, through targets
  and `#+NAME' attributes[1].  Pay attention to the following example.

  │ #+CAPTION: A table
  │ #+NAME: table
  │ | a | b |
  │ #+CAPTION: Another table
  │ #+NAME: other-table
  │ | c | d |
  │ 1. <>item 1
  │ 2. item 2
  │ Look at item [[itm]]! It happens after table [[other-table]].

    When exported, the last line will be displayed as:

  │ Look at item 1! It happens after table 2.

    It doesn’t depend on the back-end used.  It also references
  footnotes, headlines, LaTeX environments…

2.7 Lists of Tables, Lists of Listings

    There is support for lists of tables and lists of listings in some
  back-ends with the following syntax:

  │ #+TOC: headlines

  │ #+TOC: tables

  │ #+TOC: listings

3 Installation

    There are two ways to install export back-ends.

  1. You may customize `org-export-backends' variable.  It contains
     the list of back-ends that should always be available.

  2. You can also simply require the back-end libraries
     (e.g. `(require 'ox-icalendar)' for the iCalendar back-end).

    Note that with method 1, the back-ends will be loaded only when the
  export framework is used for the first time.

4 Configuration

    Previously, the export engine was configured through variables and
  numerous hooks.  Now, there are variables, only two hooks and
  filters. One can also easily fork a new export back-end from an
  existing one.

4.1 Variables

    The easiest way to browse configurable variables should be through
  customize interface.  Though, the old export framework is still
  lurking in the Org shipped with Emacs.
    As a consequence, calling “customize” will also load previous
  engine.  It can lead to confusion as variables in both frameworks
  share the same suffix.  You will have to be careful and double check
  the origin of each variable being considered.
    Anyway, if you still want to go through this, the following command
  will get you to the right starting point:

  │ M-x customize-group RET org-export RET

    However, I suggest to browse the source files and look after
  `defcustom' entries.

4.2 Hooks

    Two hooks are run during the first steps of the export process.  The
  first one, `org-export-before-processing-hook' is called before
  expanding macros, Babel code and include keywords in the buffer.  The
  second one, `org-export-before-parsing-hook', as its name suggests,
  happens just before parsing the buffer.
    Their main use is for heavy duties, that is duties involving
  structural modifications of the document.  For example, one may want
  to remove every headline in the buffer during export.  The following
  code can achieve this:

  │ 1  (defun my-headline-removal (backend)
  │ 2    "Remove all headlines in the current buffer.
  │ 3  BACKEND is the export back-end being used, as a symbol."
  │ 4    (org-map-entries
  │ 5     (lambda () (delete-region (point) (progn (forward-line)
  │ 6  (add-hook 'org-export-before-parsing-hook 'my-headline-removal)

    Note that functions used in these hooks require a mandatory
  argument, as shown at line 1.

4.3 Filters

    Filters are lists of functions applied on a specific part of the
  output from a given back-end.  More explicitly, each time a back-end
  transforms an Org object or element into another language, all
  functions within a given filter type are called in turn on the string
  produced.  The string returned by the last function will be the one
  used in the final output.
    There are filters sets for each type of element or object, for plain
  text, for the parse tree, for the export options and for the final
  output.  They are all named after the same scheme:
  `org-export-filter-TYPE-functions', where `type' is the type targeted
  by the filter.
    For example, the following snippet allows me to use non-breaking
  spaces in the Org buffer and get them translated into LaTeX without
  using the `\nbsp' macro:

  │ 1  (defun ngz-latex-filter-nobreaks (text backend info)
  │ 2    "Ensure \" \" are properly handled in LaTeX export."
  │ 3    (when (org-export-derived-backend-p backend 'latex)
  │ 4          (replace-regexp-in-string " " "~" text)))
  │ 5  (add-to-list 'org-export-filter-plain-text-functions
  │ 6               'ngz-latex-filter-nobreaks)

    Three arguments must be provided to a fiter (line 1): the code being
  changed, the back-end used, and some information about the export
  process.  You can safely ignore the third argument for most purposes.
  Note (line 3) the use of `org-export-derived-backend-p', which ensures
  that the filter will only be applied when using `latex' back-end or
  any other back-end derived from it (i.e. `beamer').

4.4 Forking a Back-End

    This is obviously the most powerful customization, since you work
  directly at the parser level.  Indeed, complete export back-ends are
  built as forks from other once (e.g. Markdown exporter is forked from
  the HTML one).
    Forking a back-end means that if an element type is not transcoded
  by the new back-end, it will be handled by the original one.  Hence
  you can extend specific parts of a back-end without too much work.
    As an example, imagine we want the `ascii' back-end to display the
  language used in a source block, when it is available, but only when
  some attribute is non-nil, like the following:

  │ #+ATTR_ASCII: :language t

    Because the `ascii' back-end is lacking in that area, we are going
  to create a new back-end, `my-ascii', that will do the job.

  │  1  (defun my-ascii-src-block (src-block contents info)
  │  2    "Transcode a SRC-BLOCK element from Org to ASCII.
  │  3  CONTENTS is nil.  INFO is a plist used as a communication
  │  4  channel."
  │  5    (let ((visiblep
  │  6           (org-export-read-attribute :attr_ascii src-block
  │  7      (if (not visiblep)
  │  8          (org-export-with-backend 'ascii src-block contents info)
  │  9        (let ((utf8p (eq (plist-get info :ascii-charset) 'utf-8)))
  │ 10          (concat
  │ 11           (format
  │ 12            (if utf8p "╭──[ %s ]──\n%s╰────"
",--[ %s ]--\n%s`----")
  │ 13            (org-element-property :language src-block)
  │ 14            (replace-regexp-in-string
  │ 15             "^" (if utf8p "│ " "| ")
  │ 16             (org-element-normalize-string
  │ 17              (org-export-format-code-default src-block
  │ 18  
  │ 19  (org-export-define-derived-backend my-ascii parent
  │ 20    :translate-alist ((src-block . my-ascii-src-block)))

    The `my-ascii-src-block' function looks at the attribute above the
  element (line 6).  If it isn’t true, it gives hand to the `ascii'
  back-end (line 8).  Otherwise, it creates a box around the code,
  leaving room for the language.  A fork of `ascii' back-end is then
  created (line 19).  It only changes its behaviour when translating
  `src-block' type element (line 20).  Now, all it takes to use the new
  back-end is calling the following on a buffer:

  │ (org-export-to-buffer 'my-ascii "*Org MY-ASCII Export*")

    It is obviously possible to write an interactive function for this,
  install it in the export dispatcher menu, and so on.

5 Caveats

  1. Although the old exporter files have been archived into
     “contrib/” directory, they are not usable anymore.  Org 7.9 will
     the last release to provide it.

  2. As a consequence, three export back-ends are not available
     anymore: Taskjuggler, XOXO and Docbook.  About the latter, there is
     a new back-end that produces Texinfo files, which can then be
     converted into Docbook format with:

     │ makeinfo --docbook file.texi

  3. Export section from Org manual is now obsolete.  It is being
     rewritten, but until this task is completed, your best source of
     information will still be the ML or the source files.


[1] Though, it will expect a caption to be properly numbered.


Nicolas Goaziou
CD: 3ms