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Gmane
From: eli.bendersky <python-checkins <at> python.org>
Subject: =?utf-8?q?peps=3A_Pre-alpha_draft_for_PEP_435_?= =?utf-8?q?=28enum=29=2E_The_name_is_not_important_at_the_moment=2C_as?=
Newsgroups: gmane.comp.python.cvs
Date: Saturday 23rd February 2013 14:36:53 UTC (over 4 years ago)
http://hg.python.org/peps/rev/3787abec0166
changeset:   4765:3787abec0166
user:        Eli Bendersky 
date:        Sat Feb 23 06:36:35 2013 -0800
summary:
  Pre-alpha draft for PEP 435 (enum). The name is not important at the
moment, as
this file will be renamed into final form when the PEP is ready. Pushing to
main
PEPs repo for safekeeping & easy collaboration.

files:
  pepdraft-0435.txt |  445 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
  1 files changed, 445 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)


diff --git a/pepdraft-0435.txt b/pepdraft-0435.txt
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/pepdraft-0435.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,445 @@
+PEP: 435
+Title: Adding an Enum type to the Python standard library
+Version: $Revision$
+Last-Modified: $Date$
+Author: Barry Warsaw ,
+        Eli Bendersky 
+Status: Draft
+Type: Standards Track
+Content-Type: text/x-rst
+Created: 2013-02-23
+Python-Version: 3.4
+Post-History: 2013-02-23
+
+
+Abstract
+========
+
+This PEP proposes adding an enumeration type to the Python standard
library.
+Specifically, it proposes moving the existing ``flufl.enum`` package by
+Barry Warsaw into the standard library.  Much of this PEP is based on the
+"using" document from the documentation of ``flufl.enum``.
+
+An enumeration is a set of symbolic names bound to unique, constant
integer
+values.  Within an enumeration, the values can be compared by identity,
and
+the enumeration itself can be iterated over.  Enumeration items can be
+converted to and from their integer equivalents, supporting use cases such
as
+storing enumeration values in a database.
+
+
+Status of discussions
+=====================
+
+The idea of adding an enum type to Python is not new - PEP 354 is a
previous
+attempt that was rejected in 2005.  Recently a new set of discussions was
+initiated [#]_ on the ``python-ideas`` mailing list.  Many new ideas were
+proposed in several threads; after a lengthy discussion Guido proposed
+adding ``flufl.enum`` to the standard library [#]_.  This PEP is an
attempt to
+formalize this decision as well as discuss a number of variations that can
+be considered for inclusion.
+
+Motivation
+==========
+
+*[Based partly on the Motivation stated in PEP 354]*
+
+The properties of an enumeration are useful for defining an immutable,
+related set of constant values that have a defined sequence but no
+inherent semantic meaning.  Classic examples are days of the week
+(Sunday through Saturday) and school assessment grades ('A' through
+'D', and 'F').  Other examples include error status values and states
+within a defined process.
+
+It is possible to simply define a sequence of values of some other
+basic type, such as ``int`` or ``str``, to represent discrete
+arbitrary values.  However, an enumeration ensures that such values
+are distinct from any others including, importantly, values within other
+enumerations, and that operations without meaning ("Wednesday times two")
+are not defined for these values.  It also provides a convenient printable
+representation of enum values without requiring tedious repetition while
+defining them (i.e. no ``GREEN = 'green'``).
+
+
+Module & type name
+==================
+
+We propose to add a module named ``enum`` to the standard library.  The
main
+type exposed by this module is ``Enum``.
+
+
+Proposed semantics for the new enumeration type
+===============================================
+
+Creating an Enum
+----------------
+
+Enumerations are created using the class syntax, which makes them easy to
read
+and write.  Every enumeration value must have a unique integer value and
the
+only restriction on their names is that they must be valid Python
identifiers.
+To define an enumeration, derive from the Enum class and add attributes
with
+assignment to their integer values.
+
+    >>> from enum import Enum
+    >>> class Colors(Enum):
+    ...     red = 1
+    ...     green = 2
+    ...     blue = 3
+
+Enumeration values are compared by identity.
+
+    >>> Colors.red is Colors.red
+    True
+    >>> Colors.blue is Colors.blue
+    True
+    >>> Colors.red is not Colors.blue
+    True
+    >>> Colors.blue is Colors.red
+    False
+
+Enumeration values have nice, human readable string representations...
+
+    >>> print(Colors.red)
+    Colors.red
+
+...while their repr has more information.
+
+    >>> print(repr(Colors.red))
+    
+
+The enumeration value names are available through the class members.
+
+    >>> for member in Colors.__members__:
+    ...     print(member)
+    red
+    green
+    blue
+
+Let's say you wanted to encode an enumeration value in a database.  You
might
+want to get the enumeration class object from an enumeration value.
+
+    >>> cls = Colors.red.enum
+    >>> print(cls.__name__)
+    Colors
+
+Enums also have a property that contains just their item name.
+
+    >>> print(Colors.red.name)
+    red
+    >>> print(Colors.green.name)
+    green
+    >>> print(Colors.blue.name)
+    blue
+
+The str and repr of the enumeration class also provides useful
information.
+
+    >>> print(Colors)
+    
+    >>> print(repr(Colors))
+    
+
+You can extend previously defined Enums by subclassing.
+
+    >>> class MoreColors(Colors):
+    ...     pink = 4
+    ...     cyan = 5
+
+When extended in this way, the base enumeration's values are identical to
the
+same named values in the derived class.
+
+    >>> Colors.red is MoreColors.red
+    True
+    >>> Colors.blue is MoreColors.blue
+    True
+
+However, these are not doing comparisons against the integer equivalent
+values, because if you define an enumeration with similar item names and
+integer values, they will not be identical.
+
+    >>> class OtherColors(Enum):
+    ...     red = 1
+    ...     blue = 2
+    ...     yellow = 3
+    >>> Colors.red is OtherColors.red
+    False
+    >>> Colors.blue is not OtherColors.blue
+    True
+
+These enumeration values are not equal, nor do they hash equally.
+
+    >>> Colors.red == OtherColors.red
+    False
+    >>> len(set((Colors.red, OtherColors.red)))
+    2
+
+Ordered comparisons between enumeration values are *not* supported.  Enums
are
+not integers!
+
+    >>> Colors.red < Colors.blue
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    NotImplementedError
+    >>> Colors.red <= Colors.blue
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    NotImplementedError
+    >>> Colors.blue > Colors.green
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    NotImplementedError
+    >>> Colors.blue >= Colors.green
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    NotImplementedError
+
+Equality comparisons are defined though.
+
+    >>> Colors.blue == Colors.blue
+    True
+    >>> Colors.green != Colors.blue
+    True
+
+Enumeration values do not support ordered comparisons.
+
+    >>> Colors.red < Colors.blue
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    NotImplementedError
+    >>> Colors.red < 3
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    NotImplementedError
+    >>> Colors.red <= 3
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    NotImplementedError
+    >>> Colors.blue > 2
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    NotImplementedError
+    >>> Colors.blue >= 2
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    NotImplementedError
+
+While equality comparisons are allowed, comparisons against
non-enumeration
+values will always compare not equal.
+
+    >>> Colors.green == 2
+    False
+    >>> Colors.blue == 3
+    False
+    >>> Colors.green != 3
+    True
+    >>> Colors.green == 'green'
+    False
+
+If you really want the integer equivalent values, you can convert
enumeration
+values explicitly using the ``int()`` built-in.  This is quite convenient
for
+storing enums in a database for example.
+
+    >>> int(Colors.red)
+    1
+    >>> int(Colors.green)
+    2
+    >>> int(Colors.blue)
+    3
+
+You can also convert back to the enumeration value by calling the Enum
class,
+passing in the integer value for the item you want.
+
+    >>> Colors(1)
+    
+    >>> Colors(2)
+    
+    >>> Colors(3)
+    
+    >>> Colors(1) is Colors.red
+    True
+
+The Enum class also accepts the string name of the enumeration value.
+
+    >>> Colors('red')
+    
+    >>> Colors('blue') is Colors.blue
+    True
+
+You get exceptions though, if you try to use invalid arguments.
+
+    >>> Colors('magenta')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    ValueError: magenta
+    >>> Colors(99)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    ValueError: 99
+
+The Enum base class also supports getitem syntax, exactly equivalent to
the
+class's call semantics.
+
+    >>> Colors[1]
+    
+    >>> Colors[2]
+    
+    >>> Colors[3]
+    
+    >>> Colors[1] is Colors.red
+    True
+    >>> Colors['red']
+    
+    >>> Colors['blue'] is Colors.blue
+    True
+    >>> Colors['magenta']
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    ValueError: magenta
+    >>> Colors[99]
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    ValueError: 99
+
+The integer equivalent values serve another purpose.  You may not define
two
+enumeration values with the same integer value.
+
+    >>> class Bad(Enum):
+    ...     cartman = 1
+    ...     stan = 2
+    ...     kyle = 3
+    ...     kenny = 3 # Oops!
+    ...     butters = 4
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    TypeError: Multiple enum values: 3
+
+You also may not duplicate values in derived enumerations.
+
+    >>> class BadColors(Colors):
+    ...     yellow = 4
+    ...     chartreuse = 2 # Oops!
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ...
+    TypeError: Multiple enum values: 2
+
+The Enum class support iteration.  Enumeration values are returned in the
+sorted order of their integer equivalent values.
+
+    >>> [v.name for v in MoreColors]
+    ['red', 'green', 'blue', 'pink', 'cyan']
+    >>> [int(v) for v in MoreColors]
+    [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
+
+Enumeration values are hashable, so they can be used in dictionaries and
sets.
+
+    >>> apples = {}
+    >>> apples[Colors.red] = 'red delicious'
+    >>> apples[Colors.green] = 'granny smith'
+    >>> for color in sorted(apples, key=int):
+    ...     print(color.name, '->', apples[color])
+    red -> red delicious
+    green -> granny smith
+
+
+Pickling
+--------
+
+Enumerations created with the class syntax can also be pickled and
unpickled:
+
+    >>> from enum.tests.fruit import Fruit
+    >>> from pickle import dumps, loads
+    >>> Fruit.tomato is loads(dumps(Fruit.tomato))
+    True
+
+
+Convenience API
+---------------
+
+You can also create enumerations using the convenience function
``make()``,
+which takes an iterable object or dictionary to provide the item names and
+values.  ``make()`` is a static method.
+
+The first argument to ``make()`` is the name of the enumeration, and it
returns
+the so-named `Enum` subclass.  The second argument is a `source` which can
be
+either an iterable or a dictionary.  In the most basic usage, `source`
returns
+a sequence of strings which name the enumeration items.  In this case, the
+values are automatically assigned starting from 1::
+
+    >>> from enum import make
+    >>> make('Animals', ('ant', 'bee', 'cat', 'dog'))
+    
+
+The items in source can also be 2-tuples, where the first item is the
+enumeration value name and the second is the integer value to assign to
the
+value.  If 2-tuples are used, all items must be 2-tuples.
+
+    >>> def enumiter():
+    ...     start = 1
+    ...     while True:
+    ...         yield start
+    ...         start <<= 1
+    >>> make('Flags', zip(list('abcdefg'), enumiter()))
+    
+
+
+Differences from PEP 354
+========================
+
+Unlike PEP 354, enumeration values are not defined as a sequence of
strings,
+but as attributes of a class.  This design was chosen because it was felt
that
+class syntax is more readable.
+
+Unlike PEP 354, enumeration values require an explicit integer value. 
This
+difference recognizes that enumerations often represent real-world values,
or
+must interoperate with external real-world systems.  For example, to store
an
+enumeration in a database, it is better to convert it to an integer on the
way
+in and back to an enumeration on the way out.  Providing an integer value
also
+provides an explicit ordering.  However, there is no automatic conversion
to
+and from the integer values, because explicit is better than implicit.
+
+Unlike PEP 354, this implementation does use a metaclass to define the
+enumeration's syntax, and allows for extended base-enumerations so that
the
+common values in derived classes are identical (a singleton model).  While
PEP
+354 dismisses this approach for its complexity, in practice any perceived
+complexity, though minimal, is hidden from users of the enumeration.
+
+Unlike PEP 354, enumeration values can only be tested by identity
comparison.
+This is to emphasis the fact that enumeration values are singletons, much
like
+``None``.
+
+
+Acknowledgments
+===============
+
+The ``flufl.enum`` implementation is based on an example by Jeremy Hylton.
 It
+has been modified and extended by Barry Warsaw for use in the `GNU
Mailman`_
+project.  Ben Finney is the author of the earlier enumeration PEP 354.
+
+.. _`GNU Mailman`: http://www.list.org
+
+References
+==========
+
+.. [#] http://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-ideas/2013-January/019003.html
+.. [#] http://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-ideas/2013-February/019373.html
+
+Copyright
+=========
+
+This document has been placed in the public domain.
+
+Todo
+====
+
+ * Mark PEP 354 "superseded by" this one
+ * New package name within stdlib
+ * ``from enum import make`` creates a not-very-descriptive "make" name.
Maybe
+   ``make_enum`` or ``enum`` is better?
+
+..
+   Local Variables:
+   mode: indented-text
+   indent-tabs-mode: nil
+   sentence-end-double-space: t
+   fill-column: 70
+   coding: utf-8
+   End:
+

-- 
Repository URL: http://hg.python.org/peps
 
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