Home Reading Searching Subscribe Sponsors Statistics Posting Contact Spam Lists Links About Hosting Filtering Features Download Marketing Archives FAQ Blog From: Bas van Dijk gmail.com> Subject: Re: Proposal: Applicative => Monad: Call for consensus Newsgroups: gmane.comp.lang.haskell.libraries Date: Monday 3rd January 2011 22:30:44 UTC (over 7 years ago) ```On Mon, Jan 3, 2011 at 12:43 PM, Ian Lynagh wrote: > On Sun, Jan 02, 2011 at 06:27:04PM -0800, Iavor Diatchki wrote: >> >> I think >> that it would be useful if there was a wiki page which describes the >> proposal exactly, so that we can discuss the details > > I agree. I'm confused as to what is part of the proposal, what are other > changes necessary due to the classes changing, what are orthogonal > cleanups, and what is not being proposed. The patch for base makes a few changes: 1) Make Applicative a superclass of Monad. So the new hierarchy becomes: class Functor f where fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b (<\$) :: a -> f b -> f a (<\$) = fmap . const class Functor f => Applicative f where pure :: a -> f a (<*>) :: f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b (*>) :: f a -> f b -> f b a *> b = fmap (const id) a <*> b (<*) :: f a -> f b -> f a a <* b = fmap const a <*> b class Applicative m => Monad m where (>>=) :: forall a b. m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b m >>= f = join \$ fmap f m join :: m (m a) -> m a join m = m >>= id (>>) :: forall a b. m a -> m b -> m b (>>) = (*>) return :: a -> m a return = pure fail :: String -> m a fail s = error s 2) Make 'join' a method of Monad. 3) Export Applicative(pure, (<*>), (*>), (<*)) from the Prelude. (Maybe we shouldn't export the (*>) and (<*) methods.) 4) Also export the join method from the Prelude. 5) Add Applicative instances for all monads in base. 6) Add a Monad instance for ((,) a): (There are already Functor and Applicative instances for it.) instance Monoid a => Monad ((,) a) where (u, x) >>= f = let (v, y) = f x in (u `mappend` v, y) (Maybe this one should be left out of the patch) The patch for ghc simply adds Applicative instances for all monads in ghc. Also included in the ghc patch bundle are some refactoring patches that will make the transition easier: * Added (<>) = mappend to compiler/utils/Util.hs. * Add a Monoid instance for AGraph and remove the <*> splice operator. Instead of <*>, the (<>) = mappend operator is now used to splice AGraphs. This change is needed because <*> clashes with the Applicative apply operator <*>, which is probably going to be exported from the Prelude when the new Monad hierarchy is going through. (Simply hiding <*> from the Prelude is also possible of course. However, I think this makes things easier to understand) * Make SDoc an abstract newtype and add a Monoid instance for it. The (<>) combinator of SDocs is removed and replaced by the more general (<>) = mappend combinator from Util. Note that all the ghc patches can be applied independently of the base patch. Now which notable things are not included in the patch for base: * fmap is not renamed to map. * return and (>>) are not removed as a method. * fail is not removed as a method. * All the liftM functions are not removed in favour of fmap and liftAs. I think these are better left as separate proposals. Regards, Bas```
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