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Gmane
From: Abhishek Rai <abhishekrai <at> google.com>
Subject: [PATCH] Clustering indirect blocks in Ext3 (was Ext2)
Newsgroups: gmane.comp.file-systems.ext4
Date: Friday 26th October 2007 23:58:06 UTC (over 10 years ago)
This patch modifies the block allocation strategy in ext3 in order to
improve fsck performance. This was initially sent out as a patch for
ext2, but given the lack of ongoing development on ext2, I have
crossported it to ext3 instead. Slow fsck is not a serious problem on
ext3 due to journaling, but once in a while users do need to run full
fsck on their ext3 file systems. This can be due to several reasons:
(1) bad disk, bad crash, etc, (2) bug in jbd/ext3, and (3) every few
reboots, it's good to run fsck anyway. This patch will help reduce
full fsck time for ext3. I've seen 50-65% reduction in fsck time when
using this patch on a near-full file system. With some fsck
optimizations, this figure becomes 80%.

Most of Ext3 metadata is clustered on disk. For example, Ext3
partitions the block space into block groups and stores the metadata
for each block group (inode table, block bitmap, inode bitmap) at the
beginning of the block group. Clustering related metadata together not
only helps ext3 I/O performance by keeping data and related metadata
close together, but also helps fsck since it is able to find all the
metadata in one place. However, indirect blocks are an exception.
Indirect blocks are allocated on-demand and are spread out along with
the data. This layout enables good I/O performance due to the close
proximity between an indirect block and its data blocks but it makes
things difficult for fsck which must now rotate almost the entire disk
in order to read all indirect blocks.

One workaround to this problem implemented in this patch is to cluster
indirect blocks together on a per group basis, similar to how inodes
and bitmaps are clustered. Indirect block clusters (metaclusters) help
fsck performance by enabling fsck to fetch all indirect blocks by
reading from a few locations on the disk instead of rotating through
the entire disk. Unfortunately, a naive clustering scheme for indirect
blocks can hurt I/O performance, as it separates out indirect blocks
and corresponding direct blocks on the disk. So an I/O to a direct
block whose indirect block is not in the page cache now needs to incur
a longer seek+rotational delay in moving the disk head from the
indirect block to the direct block.

So our goal then is to implement metaclustering without having any
impact (<0.1%) on I/O performance. Fortunately, current ext3 I/O
algorithm is not the most efficient, improving it can camouflage the
performance hit we suffer due to metaclustering. In fact,
metaclustering automatically enables one such optimization. When doing
sequential read from a file and reading an indirect block for it, we
readahead several indirect blocks of the file from the same
metacluster. Moreover, when possible we do this asynchronously. This
reduces the seek+rotational latency associated with seeking between
data and indirect blocks during a (long) sequential read.

There is one more design choice that affect the performance of this
patch: location and number of metaclusters per block group. Currently
we have one metacluster per block group and it is located at the
center of the block group. We adopted this scheme after evaluating
three possible locations of metaclusters: beginning, middle, and end
of block group. We did not evaluate configurations with >1 metacluster
per block group. In our experiments, the middle configuration did not
cause any performance degradation for sequential and random reads.
Whereas putting the metacluster at the beginning of the block group
yields best performance for sequential reads (write performance is
unaffected by this change), putting it in the middle helps random
reads. Since the "middle path" maintains status quo, we adopted that
in our change.

Performance evaluation results:
Configuration: Originally evaluated on Linux 2.6.18, dual core system
using a 400GB SATA hard disk. Measurements were done on both ext2 and
ext3.
There is statistically no performance impact on sequential read,
random read, and sequential write configurations with the metacluster
placed in the middle of the block group. This was observed on both
ext2 and ext3. Random write configuration was not tested.

Note:
/ This patch does not affect ext3 on-disk layout compatibility in any
way. Existing disks continue to work with new code, and disks modified
by new code continue to work with existing machines.
/ Metaclustering is a mount time option (-o metacluster). This option
only affects the write path, when this option is specified indirect
blocks are allocated in clusters, when it is not specified they are
allocated alongside data blocks. The read path is unaffected by the
option, read behavior depends on the data layout on disk - if read
discovers metaclusters on disk it will do prefetching otherwise it
will not.

Thanks,
Abhishek

Signed-off-by: Abhishek Rai 

diff -uprdN linux-2.6.23mm1-clean/fs/ext3/balloc.c
linux-2.6.23mm1-ext3mc/fs/ext3/balloc.c
--- linux-2.6.23mm1-clean/fs/ext3/balloc.c	2007-10-17 18:31:42.000000000
-0700
+++ linux-2.6.23mm1-ext3mc/fs/ext3/balloc.c	2007-10-26 16:46:04.000000000
-0700
@@ -711,6 +711,7 @@ bitmap_search_next_usable_block(ext3_grp
 	ext3_grpblk_t next;
 	struct journal_head *jh = bh2jh(bh);

+	BUG_ON(start > maxblocks);
 	while (start < maxblocks) {
 		next = ext3_find_next_zero_bit(bh->b_data, maxblocks, start);
 		if (next >= maxblocks)
@@ -845,6 +846,7 @@ ext3_try_to_allocate(struct super_block
 {
 	ext3_fsblk_t group_first_block;
 	ext3_grpblk_t start, end;
+	ext3_grpblk_t mc_start, mc_end, start2 = -1, end2 = -1;
 	unsigned long num = 0;

 	/* we do allocation within the reservation window if we have a window */
@@ -872,12 +874,43 @@ ext3_try_to_allocate(struct super_block
 	}

 	BUG_ON(start > EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb));
+	/* start must have been set to grp_goal if one still exists. */
+	BUG_ON(grp_goal >= 0 && start != grp_goal);
+
+	ext3_get_metacluster_range(sb, &mc_start, &mc_end);
+
+	/*
+	 * If there is an overlap with metacluster range, adjust our range to
+	 * remove overlap, splitting our range into two if needed.
+	 */
+	if (mc_start <= start)
+		start = max_t(ext3_grpblk_t, start, mc_end + 1);
+	else if (mc_end >= end - 1)
+		end = mc_start;
+	else {
+		start2 = mc_end + 1;
+		end2 = end;
+		end = mc_start;
+	}
+
+	if (start >= end)
+		goto fail_access;
+
+	if (grp_goal > 0)
+		grp_goal = start;

 repeat:
 	if (grp_goal < 0 || !ext3_test_allocatable(grp_goal, bitmap_bh)) {
 		grp_goal = find_next_usable_block(start, bitmap_bh, end);
-		if (grp_goal < 0)
+		if (grp_goal < 0) {
+			if (start2 >= 0) {
+				start = start2;
+				end = end2;
+				start2 = -1;
+				goto repeat;
+			}
 			goto fail_access;
+		}
 		if (!my_rsv) {
 			int i;

@@ -898,8 +931,15 @@ repeat:
 		 */
 		start++;
 		grp_goal++;
-		if (start >= end)
-			goto fail_access;
+		if (start >= end) {
+			if (start2 < 0)
+				goto fail_access;
+
+			start = start2;
+			end = end2;
+			start2 = -1;
+			grp_goal = -1;
+		}
 		goto repeat;
 	}
 	num++;
@@ -1084,6 +1124,7 @@ static int alloc_new_reservation(struct
 	unsigned long size;
 	int ret;
 	spinlock_t *rsv_lock = &EXT3_SB(sb)->s_rsv_window_lock;
+	ext3_grpblk_t mc_start, mc_end;

 	group_first_block = ext3_group_first_block_no(sb, group);
 	group_end_block = group_first_block + (EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb) - 1);
@@ -1143,6 +1184,7 @@ static int alloc_new_reservation(struct
 	 * To make sure the reservation window has a free bit inside it, we
 	 * need to check the bitmap after we found a reservable window.
 	 */
+	ext3_get_metacluster_range(sb, &mc_start, &mc_end);
 retry:
 	ret = find_next_reservable_window(search_head, my_rsv, sb,
 						start_block, group_end_block);
@@ -1170,6 +1212,11 @@ retry:
 			my_rsv->rsv_start - group_first_block,
 			bitmap_bh, group_end_block - group_first_block + 1);

+	if (first_free_block >= mc_start && first_free_block <= mc_end) {
+		start_block = mc_end + 1;
+		goto next;
+	}
+
 	if (first_free_block < 0) {
 		/*
 		 * no free block left on the bitmap, no point
@@ -1195,6 +1242,7 @@ retry:
 	 * start from where the free block is,
 	 * we also shift the list head to where we stopped last time
 	 */
+next:
 	search_head = my_rsv;
 	spin_lock(rsv_lock);
 	goto retry;
@@ -1223,12 +1271,18 @@ static void try_to_extend_reservation(st
 	struct ext3_reserve_window_node *next_rsv;
 	struct rb_node *next;
 	spinlock_t *rsv_lock = &EXT3_SB(sb)->s_rsv_window_lock;
+	ext3_grpblk_t mc_start, mc_end;

 	if (!spin_trylock(rsv_lock))
 		return;

 	next = rb_next(&my_rsv->rsv_node);

+	ext3_get_metacluster_range(sb, &mc_start, &mc_end);
+
+	if (my_rsv->rsv_end >= mc_start && my_rsv->rsv_end <= mc_end)
+		size += mc_end - my_rsv->rsv_end;
+
 	if (!next)
 		my_rsv->rsv_end += size;
 	else {
@@ -1473,6 +1527,7 @@ ext3_fsblk_t ext3_new_blocks(handle_t *h
 	sb = inode->i_sb;
 	if (!sb) {
 		printk("ext3_new_block: nonexistent device");
+		*errp = -ENODEV;
 		return 0;
 	}

@@ -1487,6 +1542,11 @@ ext3_fsblk_t ext3_new_blocks(handle_t *h
 	sbi = EXT3_SB(sb);
 	es = EXT3_SB(sb)->s_es;
 	ext3_debug("goal=%lu.\n", goal);
+
+	/* Caller should ensure this. */
+	BUG_ON(goal < le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block) ||
+	       goal >= le32_to_cpu(es->s_blocks_count));
+
 	/*
 	 * Allocate a block from reservation only when
 	 * filesystem is mounted with reservation(default,-o reservation), and
@@ -1507,9 +1567,6 @@ ext3_fsblk_t ext3_new_blocks(handle_t *h
 	/*
 	 * First, test whether the goal block is free.
 	 */
-	if (goal < le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block) ||
-	    goal >= le32_to_cpu(es->s_blocks_count))
-		goal = le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block);
 	group_no = (goal - le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block)) /
 			EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
 	goal_group = group_no;
@@ -1713,6 +1770,148 @@ ext3_fsblk_t ext3_new_block(handle_t *ha
 	return ext3_new_blocks(handle, inode, goal, &count, errp);
 }

+/*
+ * ext3_new_indirect_blocks() -- allocate indirect blocks for inode.
+ * @inode:		file inode
+ * @count:		target number of indirect blocks to allocate
+ * @new_blocks[]:       used for returning block numbers allocated
+ *
+ * return: 0 on success, appropriate error code otherwise. Upon return,
*count
+ * contains the number of blocks successfully allocated which is non-zero
only
+ * in the success case.
+ *
+ * Allocate maximum of *count indirect blocks from the indirect block
metadata
+ * area of inode's group and store the block numbers in new_blocksp[].
Since
+ * the allocation is in a predetermined region of the block group, caller
just
+ * needs to pass a group number here which is where the goal and/or the
+ * reservation window may fall.
+ */
+int ext3_new_indirect_blocks(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
+			unsigned long group_no, unsigned long *count,
+			ext3_fsblk_t new_blocks[])
+{
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct ext3_sb_info *sbi;
+	struct buffer_head *bitmap_bh = NULL;
+	struct buffer_head *gdp_bh;
+	struct ext3_group_desc *gdp;
+	ext3_grpblk_t group_first_block;      /* first block in the group */
+	ext3_grpblk_t free_blocks;	/* number of free blocks in the group */
+	ext3_grpblk_t mc_start, mc_end;
+	int blk, done = 0;
+	int err = 0;
+
+	BUG_ON(*count > 3);
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	if (!sb) {
+		printk(KERN_INFO "ext3_new_indirect_blocks: "
+			"nonexistent device");
+		return -ENODEV;
+	}
+
+	if (DQUOT_ALLOC_BLOCK(inode, *count))
+		return -EDQUOT;
+
+	sbi = EXT3_SB(sb);
+	gdp = ext3_get_group_desc(sb, group_no, &gdp_bh);
+	if (!gdp) {
+		err = -EIO;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	free_blocks = le16_to_cpu(gdp->bg_free_blocks_count);
+	if (free_blocks == 0) {
+		err = -ENOSPC;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	bitmap_bh = read_block_bitmap(sb, group_no);
+	if (!bitmap_bh) {
+		err = -EIO;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Make sure we use undo access for the bitmap, because it is critical
+	 * that we do the frozen_data COW on bitmap buffers in all cases even
+	 * if the buffer is in BJ_Forget state in the committing transaction.
+	 */
+	BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "get undo access for new indirect block");
+	err = ext3_journal_get_undo_access(handle, bitmap_bh);
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+	err = -ENOSPC;
+	group_first_block = ext3_group_first_block_no(sb, group_no);
+	ext3_get_metacluster_range(sb, &mc_start, &mc_end);
+	blk = mc_start;
+
+	while (done < *count && blk <= mc_end) {
+		if (!ext3_test_allocatable(blk, bitmap_bh)) {
+			blk = find_next_usable_block(blk, bitmap_bh,
+							mc_end + 1);
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (claim_block(sb_bgl_lock(EXT3_SB(sb), group_no), blk,
+				bitmap_bh)) {
+			new_blocks[done++] = group_first_block + blk;
+		} else {
+			/*
+			 * The block was allocated by another thread, or it
+			 * was allocated and then freed by another thread
+			 */
+			cpu_relax();
+		}
+		blk++;
+	}
+
+	if (!done) {
+		BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "journal_release_buffer");
+		ext3_journal_release_buffer(handle, bitmap_bh);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	BUFFER_TRACE(bitmap_bh, "journal_dirty_metadata for bitmap block");
+	err = ext3_journal_dirty_metadata(handle, bitmap_bh);
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+	BUFFER_TRACE(gdp_bh, "get_write_access");
+	err = ext3_journal_get_write_access(handle, gdp_bh);
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+	/*
+	 * Caller is responsible for adding the new indirect block buffers
+	 * to the journal list.
+	 */
+
+	spin_lock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group_no));
+	gdp->bg_free_blocks_count =
+		cpu_to_le16(le16_to_cpu(gdp->bg_free_blocks_count) - done);
+	spin_unlock(sb_bgl_lock(sbi, group_no));
+	percpu_counter_sub(&sbi->s_freeblocks_counter, done);
+
+	BUFFER_TRACE(gdp_bh, "journal_dirty_metadata for group descriptor");
+	err = ext3_journal_dirty_metadata(handle, gdp_bh);
+	sb->s_dirt = 1;
+	if (err)
+		goto out;
+
+out:
+	if (bitmap_bh)
+		brelse(bitmap_bh);
+
+	DQUOT_FREE_BLOCK(inode, *count - done);
+	*count = done;
+
+	if (err && err != -ENOSPC)
+		printk("ext3_new_indirect_blocks: error %d", err);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
 /**
  * ext3_count_free_blocks() -- count filesystem free blocks
  * @sb:		superblock
diff -uprdN linux-2.6.23mm1-clean/fs/ext3/inode.c
linux-2.6.23mm1-ext3mc/fs/ext3/inode.c
--- linux-2.6.23mm1-clean/fs/ext3/inode.c	2007-10-17 18:31:42.000000000
-0700
+++ linux-2.6.23mm1-ext3mc/fs/ext3/inode.c	2007-10-26 16:47:47.000000000
-0700
@@ -39,7 +39,29 @@
 #include "xattr.h"
 #include "acl.h"

+typedef struct {
+	__le32	*p;
+	__le32	key;
+	struct buffer_head *bh;
+} Indirect;
+
+struct ext3_ind_read_info {
+	int                     count;
+	int                     seq_prefetch;
+	long                    size;
+	struct buffer_head      *bh[0];
+};
+
+# define EXT3_IND_READ_INFO_SIZE(_c)        \
+	(sizeof(struct ext3_ind_read_info) + \
+	 sizeof(struct buffer_head *) * (_c))
+
+# define EXT3_IND_READ_MAX     	(32)
+
 static int ext3_writepage_trans_blocks(struct inode *inode);
+static Indirect *ext3_read_indblocks(struct inode *inode, int iblock,
+				     int depth, int offsets[4],
+				     Indirect chain[4], int *err);

 /*
  * Test whether an inode is a fast symlink.
@@ -233,12 +255,6 @@ no_delete:
 	clear_inode(inode);	/* We must guarantee clearing of inode... */
 }

-typedef struct {
-	__le32	*p;
-	__le32	key;
-	struct buffer_head *bh;
-} Indirect;
-
 static inline void add_chain(Indirect *p, struct buffer_head *bh, __le32
*v)
 {
 	p->key = *(p->p = v);
@@ -352,18 +368,21 @@ static int ext3_block_to_path(struct ino
  *	the whole chain, all way to the data (returns %NULL, *err == 0).
  */
 static Indirect *ext3_get_branch(struct inode *inode, int depth, int
*offsets,
-				 Indirect chain[4], int *err)
+				 Indirect chain[4], int ind_readahead, int *err)
 {
 	struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;
 	Indirect *p = chain;
 	struct buffer_head *bh;
+	int index;

 	*err = 0;
 	/* i_data is not going away, no lock needed */
 	add_chain (chain, NULL, EXT3_I(inode)->i_data + *offsets);
 	if (!p->key)
 		goto no_block;
-	while (--depth) {
+	for (index = 0; index < depth - 1; index++) {
+		if (ind_readahead && depth > 2 && index == depth - 2)
+			break;
 		bh = sb_bread(sb, le32_to_cpu(p->key));
 		if (!bh)
 			goto failure;
@@ -396,7 +415,15 @@ no_block:
  *	It is used when heuristic for sequential allocation fails.
  *	Rules are:
  *	  + if there is a block to the left of our position - allocate near it.
- *	  + if pointer will live in indirect block - allocate near that block.
+ *	  + If METACLUSTER options is not specified, allocate the data
+ *	  block close to the metadata block. Otherwise, if pointer will live in
+ *	  indirect block, we cannot allocate near the indirect block since
+ *	  indirect blocks are allocated in a reserved area. Even if we allocate
+ *	  this block right after the preceding logical file block, we'll still
+ *	  have to incur extra seek due to the indirect block (unless we
+ *	  prefetch the indirect block separately). So for now (until
+ *	  prefetching is turned on), it's OK not to return a sequential goal -
+ *	  just put in the same cylinder group as the inode.
  *	  + if pointer will live in inode - allocate in the same
  *	    cylinder group.
  *
@@ -407,7 +434,7 @@ no_block:
  *
  *	Caller must make sure that @ind is valid and will stay that way.
  */
-static ext3_fsblk_t ext3_find_near(struct inode *inode, Indirect *ind)
+static inline ext3_fsblk_t ext3_find_near(struct inode *inode, Indirect
*ind)
 {
 	struct ext3_inode_info *ei = EXT3_I(inode);
 	__le32 *start = ind->bh ? (__le32*) ind->bh->b_data : ei->i_data;
@@ -421,9 +448,11 @@ static ext3_fsblk_t ext3_find_near(struc
 			return le32_to_cpu(*p);
 	}

-	/* No such thing, so let's try location of indirect block */
-	if (ind->bh)
-		return ind->bh->b_blocknr;
+	if (!test_opt(inode->i_sb, METACLUSTER)) {
+		/* No such thing, so let's try location of indirect block */
+		if (ind->bh)
+			return ind->bh->b_blocknr;
+	}

 	/*
 	 * It is going to be referred to from the inode itself? OK, just put it
@@ -475,8 +504,7 @@ static ext3_fsblk_t ext3_find_goal(struc
  *	@blks: number of data blocks to be mapped.
  *	@blocks_to_boundary:  the offset in the indirect block
  *
- *	return the total number of blocks to be allocate, including the
- *	direct and indirect blocks.
+ *	return the total number of direct blocks to be allocated.
  */
 static int ext3_blks_to_allocate(Indirect *branch, int k, unsigned long
blks,
 		int blocks_to_boundary)
@@ -508,22 +536,39 @@ static int ext3_blks_to_allocate(Indirec
  *	ext3_alloc_blocks: multiple allocate blocks needed for a branch
  *	@indirect_blks: the number of blocks need to allocate for indirect
  *			blocks
- *
+ *	@blks: the number of direct blocks to be allocated
  *	@new_blocks: on return it will store the new block numbers for
  *	the indirect blocks(if needed) and the first direct block,
- *	@blks:	on return it will store the total number of allocated
- *		direct blocks
+ *
+ *	returns the number of direct blocks allocated, error via *err, and
+ *	new block numbers via new_blocks[]
  */
 static int ext3_alloc_blocks(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
 			ext3_fsblk_t goal, int indirect_blks, int blks,
 			ext3_fsblk_t new_blocks[4], int *err)
 {
+	struct super_block *sb;
+	struct ext3_super_block *es;
 	int target, i;
-	unsigned long count = 0;
+	unsigned long count = 0, goal_group;
 	int index = 0;
 	ext3_fsblk_t current_block = 0;
 	int ret = 0;

+	BUG_ON(blks <= 0);
+
+	sb = inode->i_sb;
+	if (!sb) {
+		printk(KERN_INFO "ext3_alloc_blocks: nonexistent device");
+		*err = -ENODEV;
+		return 0;
+	}
+	es = EXT3_SB(sb)->s_es;
+
+	if (goal < le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block) ||
+	    goal >= le32_to_cpu(es->s_blocks_count))
+		goal = le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block);
+
 	/*
 	 * Here we try to allocate the requested multiple blocks at once,
 	 * on a best-effort basis.
@@ -534,6 +579,41 @@ static int ext3_alloc_blocks(handle_t *h
 	 */
 	target = blks + indirect_blks;

+	/*
+	 * Try to allocate indirect blocks in the metacluster region of block
+	 * group in which goal falls. This should not only give us clustered
+	 * metablock allocation, but also allocate new metablocks close to the
+	 * corresponding data blocks (by putting them in the same block group).
+	 * Note that allocation of indirect blocks is only guided by goal and
+	 * not by reservation window since the goal mostly falls within the
+	 * reservation window for sequential allocation.
+	 * If the indirect blocks could not be allocated in this block group,
+	 * we fall back to sequential allocation of indirect block alongside
+	 * the data block instead of trying other block groups as that can
+	 * separate indirect and data blocks too far out.
+	 */
+	if (test_opt(sb, METACLUSTER) && indirect_blks) {
+		count = indirect_blks;
+		goal_group = (goal - le32_to_cpu(es->s_first_data_block)) /
+				EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb);
+		*err = ext3_new_indirect_blocks(handle, inode, goal_group,
+						&count, new_blocks + index);
+		if (*err && *err != -ENOSPC) {
+			printk(KERN_ERR "ext3_alloc_blocks failed to allocate "
+				"indirect blocks: %d", *err);
+			goto failed_out;
+		} else if (*err == 0) {
+			BUG_ON(count == 0);
+		}
+		*err = 0;
+
+		if (count > 0) {
+			index += count;
+			target -= count;
+			BUG_ON(index > indirect_blks);
+		}
+	}
+
 	while (1) {
 		count = target;
 		/* allocating blocks for indirect blocks and direct blocks */
@@ -542,7 +622,7 @@ static int ext3_alloc_blocks(handle_t *h
 			goto failed_out;

 		target -= count;
-		/* allocate blocks for indirect blocks */
+		/* store indirect block numbers we just allocated */
 		while (index < indirect_blks && count) {
 			new_blocks[index++] = current_block++;
 			count--;
@@ -570,10 +650,14 @@ failed_out:
  *	@inode: owner
  *	@indirect_blks: number of allocated indirect blocks
  *	@blks: number of allocated direct blocks
+ *	@goal: goal for allocation
  *	@offsets: offsets (in the blocks) to store the pointers to next.
  *	@branch: place to store the chain in.
  *
- *	This function allocates blocks, zeroes out all but the last one,
+ *	returns error and number of direct blocks allocated via *blks
+ *
+ *	This function allocates indirect_blks + *blks, zeroes out all
+ *	indirect blocks,
  *	links them into chain and (if we are synchronous) writes them to disk.
  *	In other words, it prepares a branch that can be spliced onto the
  *	inode. It stores the information about that chain in the branch[], in
@@ -799,17 +883,24 @@ int ext3_get_blocks_handle(handle_t *han
 	int blocks_to_boundary = 0;
 	int depth;
 	struct ext3_inode_info *ei = EXT3_I(inode);
-	int count = 0;
+	int count = 0, ind_readahead;
 	ext3_fsblk_t first_block = 0;

-
+	BUG_ON(!create &&
+		iblock >= (inode->i_size + inode->i_sb->s_blocksize - 1) >>
+					inode->i_sb->s_blocksize_bits);
 	J_ASSERT(handle != NULL || create == 0);
 	depth = ext3_block_to_path(inode,iblock,offsets,&blocks_to_boundary);

 	if (depth == 0)
 		goto out;

-	partial = ext3_get_branch(inode, depth, offsets, chain, &err);
+	ind_readahead = !create && depth > 2;
+	partial = ext3_get_branch(inode, depth, offsets, chain,
+				  ind_readahead, &err);
+	if (!partial && ind_readahead)
+		partial = ext3_read_indblocks(inode, iblock, depth,
+					      offsets, chain, &err);

 	/* Simplest case - block found, no allocation needed */
 	if (!partial) {
@@ -844,7 +935,7 @@ int ext3_get_blocks_handle(handle_t *han
 	}

 	/* Next simple case - plain lookup or failed read of indirect block */
-	if (!create || err == -EIO)
+	if (!create || (err && err != -EAGAIN))
 		goto cleanup;

 	mutex_lock(&ei->truncate_mutex);
@@ -866,7 +957,8 @@ int ext3_get_blocks_handle(handle_t *han
 			brelse(partial->bh);
 			partial--;
 		}
-		partial = ext3_get_branch(inode, depth, offsets, chain, &err);
+		partial = ext3_get_branch(inode, depth, offsets, chain, 0,
+					&err);
 		if (!partial) {
 			count++;
 			mutex_unlock(&ei->truncate_mutex);
@@ -1974,7 +2066,7 @@ static Indirect *ext3_find_shared(struct
 	/* Make k index the deepest non-null offest + 1 */
 	for (k = depth; k > 1 && !offsets[k-1]; k--)
 		;
-	partial = ext3_get_branch(inode, k, offsets, chain, &err);
+	partial = ext3_get_branch(inode, k, offsets, chain, 0, &err);
 	/* Writer: pointers */
 	if (!partial)
 		partial = chain + k-1;
@@ -3297,3 +3389,508 @@ int ext3_change_inode_journal_flag(struc

 	return err;
 }
+
+/*
+ * ext3_ind_read_end_bio --
+ *
+ * 	bio callback for read IO issued from ext3_read_indblocks.
+ * 	Will be called only once, when all I/O has completed.
+ * 	Frees read_info and bio.
+ */
+static void ext3_ind_read_end_bio(struct bio *bio, int err)
+{
+	struct ext3_ind_read_info *read_info = bio->bi_private;
+	struct buffer_head *bh;
+	int uptodate = !err && test_bit(BIO_UPTODATE, &bio->bi_flags);
+	int i;
+
+	BUG_ON(read_info->count <= 0);
+
+	if (err == -EOPNOTSUPP)
+		set_bit(BIO_EOPNOTSUPP, &bio->bi_flags);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < read_info->count; i++) {
+		bh = read_info->bh[i];
+		BUG_ON(bh == NULL);
+
+		if (err == -EOPNOTSUPP)
+			set_bit(BH_Eopnotsupp, &bh->b_state);
+
+		if (uptodate) {
+			BUG_ON(buffer_uptodate(bh));
+			BUG_ON(ext3_buffer_prefetch(bh));
+			set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
+			if (read_info->seq_prefetch)
+				ext3_set_buffer_prefetch(bh);
+		}
+
+		unlock_buffer(bh);
+		brelse(bh);
+	}
+
+	kfree(read_info);
+	bio_put(bio);
+}
+
+/*
+ * ext3_get_max_read --
+ * 	@inode: inode of file.
+ * 	@block: block number in file (starting from zero).
+ * 	@offset_in_dind_block: offset of the indirect block inside it's
+ * 	parent doubly-indirect block.
+ *
+ *      Compute the maximum no. of indirect blocks that can be read
+ *      satisfying following constraints:
+ *              - Don't read indirect blocks beyond the end of current
+ *              doubly-indirect block.
+ *              - Don't read beyond eof.
+ */
+static inline unsigned long ext3_get_max_read(const struct inode *inode,
+						  int block,
+						  int offset_in_dind_block)
+{
+	const struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;
+	unsigned long max_read;
+	unsigned long ptrs = EXT3_ADDR_PER_BLOCK(inode->i_sb);
+	unsigned long ptrs_bits = EXT3_ADDR_PER_BLOCK_BITS(inode->i_sb);
+	unsigned long blocks_in_file =
+		(inode->i_size + sb->s_blocksize - 1) >> sb->s_blocksize_bits;
+	unsigned long remaining_ind_blks_in_dind =
+		(ptrs >= offset_in_dind_block) ? (ptrs - offset_in_dind_block)
+					       : 0;
+	unsigned long remaining_ind_blks_before_eof =
+		((blocks_in_file - EXT3_NDIR_BLOCKS + ptrs - 1) >> ptrs_bits) -
+		((block - EXT3_NDIR_BLOCKS) >> ptrs_bits);
+
+	BUG_ON(block >= blocks_in_file);
+
+	max_read = min_t(unsigned long, remaining_ind_blks_in_dind,
+			 remaining_ind_blks_before_eof);
+
+	BUG_ON(max_read < 1);
+
+	return max_read;
+}
+
+static void ext3_read_indblocks_submit(struct bio **pbio,
+					struct ext3_ind_read_info **pread_info,
+					int *read_cnt, int seq_prefetch)
+{
+	struct bio *bio = *pbio;
+	struct ext3_ind_read_info *read_info = *pread_info;
+
+	BUG_ON(*read_cnt < 1);
+
+	read_info->seq_prefetch = seq_prefetch;
+	read_info->count = *read_cnt;
+	read_info->size = bio->bi_size;
+	bio->bi_private = read_info;
+	bio->bi_end_io = ext3_ind_read_end_bio;
+	submit_bio(READ, bio);
+
+	*pbio = NULL;
+	*pread_info = NULL;
+	*read_cnt = 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * ext3_read_indblocks_async --
+ *      @sb:            super block
+ *      @ind_blocks[]:  array of indirect block numbers on disk
+ *      @count:         maximum number of indirect blocks to read
+ *      @first_bh:      buffer_head for indirect block ind_blocks[0], may
be
+ *                      NULL
+ *      @seq_prefetch:  if this is part of a sequential prefetch and
buffers'
+ *                      prefetch bit must be set.
+ *      @blocks_done:   number of blocks considered for prefetching.
+ *
+ *      Issue a single bio request to read upto count buffers identified
in
+ *      ind_blocks[]. Fewer than count buffers may be read in some cases:
+ *      - If a buffer is found to be uptodate and it's prefetch bit is
set, we
+ *      don't look at any more buffers as they will most likely be in
the cache.
+ *      - We skip buffers we cannot lock without blocking (except for
first_bh
+ *			read_info->seq_prefetch = seq_prefetch;
+			read_info->count = read_cnt;
+			read_info->size = bio->bi_size;
+			bio->bi_private = read_info;
+			bio->bi_end_io = ext3_ind_read_end_bio;
+			submit_bio(READ, bio);
+      if specified).
+ *      - We skip buffers beyond a certain range on disk.
+ *
+ *      This function must issue read on first_bh if specified unless of
course
+ *      it's already uptodate.
+ */
+static int ext3_read_indblocks_async(struct super_block *sb,
+				     __le32 ind_blocks[], int count,
+				     struct buffer_head *first_bh,
+				     int seq_prefetch,
+				     unsigned long *blocks_done)
+{
+	struct buffer_head *bh;
+	struct bio *bio = NULL;
+	struct ext3_ind_read_info *read_info = NULL;
+	int read_cnt = 0, blk;
+	ext3_fsblk_t prev_blk = 0, io_start_blk = 0, curr;
+	int err = 0;
+
+	BUG_ON(count < 1);
+	/* Don't move this to ext3_get_max_read() since callers often need to
+	 * trim the count returned by that function. So this bound must only
+	 * be imposed at the last moment. */
+	count = min_t(unsigned long, count, EXT3_IND_READ_MAX);
+	*blocks_done = 0UL;
+
+	if (count == 1 && first_bh) {
+		lock_buffer(first_bh);
+		get_bh(first_bh);
+		first_bh->b_end_io = end_buffer_read_sync;
+		submit_bh(READ, first_bh);
+		*blocks_done = 1UL;
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	for (blk = 0; blk < count; blk++) {
+		curr = le32_to_cpu(ind_blocks[blk]);
+
+		if (!curr)
+			continue;
+
+		if (io_start_blk > 0) {
+			if (max(io_start_blk, curr) - min(io_start_blk, curr) >=
+					EXT3_IND_READ_MAX)
+				continue;
+		}
+
+		if (prev_blk > 0 && curr != prev_blk + 1) {
+			ext3_read_indblocks_submit(&bio, &read_info,
+						&read_cnt, seq_prefetch);
+			prev_blk = 0;
+			break;
+		}
+
+		if (blk == 0 && first_bh) {
+			bh = first_bh;
+			get_bh(first_bh);
+		} else {
+			bh = sb_getblk(sb, curr);
+			if (unlikely(!bh)) {
+				err = -ENOMEM;
+				goto failure;
+			}
+		}
+
+		if (buffer_uptodate(bh)) {
+			if (ext3_buffer_prefetch(bh)) {
+				brelse(bh);
+				break;
+			}
+			brelse(bh);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/* Lock the buffer without blocking, skipping any buffers
+		 * which would require us to block. first_bh when specified is
+		 * an exception as caller typically wants it to be read for
+		 * sure (e.g., ext3_read_indblocks_sync).
+		 */
+		if (bh == first_bh) {
+			lock_buffer(bh);
+		} else if (test_set_buffer_locked(bh)) {
+			brelse(bh);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		/* Check again with the buffer locked. */
+		if (buffer_uptodate(bh)) {
+			if (ext3_buffer_prefetch(bh)) {
+				unlock_buffer(bh);
+				brelse(bh);
+				break;
+			}
+			unlock_buffer(bh);
+			brelse(bh);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		if (read_cnt == 0) {
+			/* read_info freed in ext3_ind_read_end_bio(). */
+			read_info = kmalloc(EXT3_IND_READ_INFO_SIZE(count),
+					    GFP_KERNEL);
+			if (unlikely(!read_info)) {
+				err = -ENOMEM;
+				goto failure;
+			}
+
+			bio = bio_alloc(GFP_KERNEL, count);
+			if (unlikely(!bio)) {
+				err = -ENOMEM;
+				goto failure;
+			}
+			bio->bi_sector = bh->b_blocknr * (bh->b_size >> 9);
+			bio->bi_bdev = bh->b_bdev;
+		}
+
+		if (bio_add_page(bio, bh->b_page, bh->b_size, bh_offset(bh))
+				< bh->b_size) {
+			brelse(bh);
+			if (read_cnt == 0)
+				goto failure;
+
+			break;
+		}
+
+		read_info->bh[read_cnt++] = bh;
+
+		prev_blk = curr;
+		if (io_start_blk == 0)
+			io_start_blk = curr;
+	}
+
+	if (read_cnt == 0)
+		goto done;
+
+	ext3_read_indblocks_submit(&bio, &read_info, &read_cnt, seq_prefetch);
+
+	*blocks_done = blk;
+	return 0;
+
+failure:
+	while (--read_cnt >= 0) {
+		unlock_buffer(read_info->bh[read_cnt]);
+		brelse(read_info->bh[read_cnt]);
+	}
+
+done:
+	if (read_info)
+		kfree(read_info);
+
+	if (bio)
+		bio_put(bio);
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * ext3_read_indblocks_async --
+ *      @sb:            super block
+ *      @ind_blocks[]:  array of indirect block numbers on disk
+ *      @count:         maximum number of indirect blocks to read
+ *      @first_bh:      buffer_head for indirect block ind_blocks[0], must
be
+ *                      non-NULL.
+ *      @seq_prefetch:  set prefetch bit of buffers, used when this is
part of
+ *                      a sequential prefetch.
+ *      @blocks_done:   number of blocks considered for prefetching.
+ *
+ *      Synchronously read at most count indirect blocks listed in
+ *      ind_blocks[]. This function calls ext3_read_indblocks_async() to
do all
+ *      the hard work. It waits for read to complete on first_bh before
+ *      returning.
+ */
+
+static int ext3_read_indblocks_sync(struct super_block *sb,
+				    __le32 ind_blocks[], int count,
+				    struct buffer_head *first_bh,
+				    int seq_prefetch,
+				    unsigned long *blocks_done)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	BUG_ON(count < 1);
+	BUG_ON(!first_bh);
+
+	err = ext3_read_indblocks_async(sb, ind_blocks, count, first_bh,
+					seq_prefetch, blocks_done);
+	if (err)
+		return err;
+
+	wait_on_buffer(first_bh);
+	if (!buffer_uptodate(first_bh))
+		err = -EIO;
+
+	/* if seq_prefetch != 0, ext3_read_indblocks_async() sets prefetch bit
+	 * for all buffers, but the first buffer for sync IO is never a prefetch
+	 * buffer since it's needed presently so mark it so.
+	 */
+	if (seq_prefetch)
+		ext3_clear_buffer_prefetch(first_bh);
+
+	BUG_ON(ext3_buffer_prefetch(first_bh));
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * ext3_read_indblocks --
+ *
+ * 	@inode: inode of file
+ * 	@iblock: block number inside file (starting from 0).
+ * 	@depth: depth of path from inode to data block.
+ * 	@offsets: array of offsets within blocks identified in 'chain'.
+ * 	@chain: array of Indirect with info about all levels of blocks until
+ * 	the data block.
+ * 	@err: error pointer.
+ *
+ * 	This function is called after reading all metablocks leading to
'iblock'
+ * 	except the (singly) indirect block. It reads the indirect block if not
+ * 	already in the cache and may also prefetch next few indirect blocks.
+ * 	It uses a combination of synchronous and asynchronous requests to
+ * 	accomplish this. We do prefetching even for random reads by reading
+ * 	ahead one indirect block since reads of size >=512KB have at least 12%
+ * 	chance of spanning two indirect blocks.
+ */
+
+static Indirect *ext3_read_indblocks(struct inode *inode, int iblock,
+				     int depth, int offsets[4],
+				     Indirect chain[4], int *err)
+{
+	struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;
+	struct buffer_head *first_bh, *prev_bh;
+	unsigned long max_read, blocks_done = 0;
+	__le32 *ind_blocks;
+
+	/* Must have doubly indirect block for prefetching indirect blocks. */
+	BUG_ON(depth <= 2);
+	BUG_ON(!chain[depth-2].key);
+
+	*err = 0;
+
+	/* Handle first block */
+	ind_blocks = chain[depth-2].p;
+	first_bh = sb_getblk(sb, le32_to_cpu(ind_blocks[0]));
+	if (unlikely(!first_bh)) {
+		printk(KERN_ERR "Failed to get block %u for sb %p\n",
+		       le32_to_cpu(ind_blocks[0]), sb);
+		goto failure;
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(first_bh->b_size != sb->s_blocksize);
+
+	if (buffer_uptodate(first_bh)) {
+		/* Found the buffer in cache, either it was accessed recently or
+		 * it was prefetched while reading previous indirect block(s).
+		 * We need to figure out if we need to prefetch the following
+		 * indirect blocks.
+		 */
+		if (!ext3_buffer_prefetch(first_bh)) {
+			/* Either we've seen this indirect block before while
+			 * accessing another data block, or this is a random
+			 * read. In the former case, we must have done the
+			 * needful the first time we had a cache hit on this
+			 * indirect block, in the latter case we obviously
+			 * don't need to do any prefetching.
+			 */
+			goto done;
+		}
+
+		max_read = ext3_get_max_read(inode, iblock,
+					     offsets[depth-2]);
+
+		/* This indirect block is in the cache due to prefetching and
+		 * this is its first cache hit, clear the prefetch bit and
+		 * make sure the following blocks are also prefetched.
+		 */
+		ext3_clear_buffer_prefetch(first_bh);
+
+		if (max_read >= 2) {
+			/* ext3_read_indblocks_async() stops at the first
+			 * indirect block which has the prefetch bit set which
+			 * will most likely be the very next indirect block.
+			 */
+			ext3_read_indblocks_async(sb, &ind_blocks[1],
+						  max_read - 1,
+						  NULL, 1, &blocks_done);
+		}
+
+	} else {
+		/* Buffer is not in memory, we need to read it. If we are
+		 * reading sequentially from the previous indirect block, we
+		 * have just detected a sequential read and we must prefetch
+		 * some indirect blocks for future.
+		 */
+
+		max_read = ext3_get_max_read(inode, iblock,
+					     offsets[depth-2]);
+
+		if ((ind_blocks - (__le32 *)chain[depth-2].bh->b_data) >= 1) {
+			prev_bh = sb_getblk(sb, le32_to_cpu(ind_blocks[-1]));
+			if (buffer_uptodate(prev_bh) &&
+			    !ext3_buffer_prefetch(prev_bh)) {
+				/* Detected sequential read. */
+				brelse(prev_bh);
+
+				/* Sync read indirect block, also read the next
+				 * few indirect blocks.
+				 */
+				*err = ext3_read_indblocks_sync(sb, ind_blocks,
+							 max_read, first_bh, 1,
+							 &blocks_done);
+
+				if (*err)
+					goto out;
+
+				/* In case the very next indirect block is
+				 * discontiguous by a non-trivial amount,
+				 * ext3_read_indblocks_sync() above won't
+				 * prefetch it (indicated by blocks_done < 2).
+				 * So to help sequential read, schedule an
+				 * async request for reading the next
+				 * contiguous indirect block range (which
+				 * in metaclustering case would be the next
+				 * metacluster, without metaclustering it
+				 * would be the next indirect block). This is
+				 * expected to benefit the non-metaclustering
+				 * case.
+				 */
+				if (max_read >= 2 && blocks_done < 2)
+					ext3_read_indblocks_async(sb,
+							&ind_blocks[1],
+							max_read - 1,
+							NULL, 1, &blocks_done);
+
+				goto done;
+			}
+			brelse(prev_bh);
+		}
+
+		/* Either random read, or sequential detection failed above.
+		 * We always prefetch the next indirect block in this case
+		 * whenever possible.
+		 * This is because for random reads of size ~512KB, there is
+		 * >12% chance that a read will span two indirect blocks.
+		 */
+		*err = ext3_read_indblocks_sync(sb, ind_blocks,
+						(max_read >= 2) ? 2 : 1,
+						first_bh, 0, &blocks_done);
+		if (*err)
+			goto out;
+	}
+
+done:
+	/* Reader: pointers */
+	if (!verify_chain(chain, &chain[depth - 2])) {
+		brelse(first_bh);
+		goto changed;
+	}
+	add_chain(&chain[depth - 1], first_bh,
+		  (__le32*)first_bh->b_data + offsets[depth - 1]);
+	/* Reader: end */
+	if (!chain[depth - 1].key)
+		goto out;
+
+	BUG_ON(!buffer_uptodate(first_bh));
+	return NULL;
+
+changed:
+	*err = -EAGAIN;
+	goto out;
+failure:
+	*err = -EIO;
+out:
+	if (*err) {
+		ext3_debug("Error %d reading indirect blocks\n", *err);
+		return &chain[depth - 2];
+	} else
+		return &chain[depth - 1];
+}
+
diff -uprdN linux-2.6.23mm1-clean/fs/ext3/super.c
linux-2.6.23mm1-ext3mc/fs/ext3/super.c
--- linux-2.6.23mm1-clean/fs/ext3/super.c	2007-10-17 18:31:42.000000000
-0700
+++ linux-2.6.23mm1-ext3mc/fs/ext3/super.c	2007-10-26 16:16:01.000000000
-0700
@@ -625,6 +625,9 @@ static int ext3_show_options(struct seq_
 	else if (test_opt(sb, DATA_FLAGS) == EXT3_MOUNT_WRITEBACK_DATA)
 		seq_puts(seq, ",data=writeback");

+	if (test_opt(sb, METACLUSTER))
+		seq_puts(seq, ",metacluster");
+
 	ext3_show_quota_options(seq, sb);

 	return 0;
@@ -758,7 +761,7 @@ enum {
 	Opt_usrjquota, Opt_grpjquota, Opt_offusrjquota, Opt_offgrpjquota,
 	Opt_jqfmt_vfsold, Opt_jqfmt_vfsv0, Opt_quota, Opt_noquota,
 	Opt_ignore, Opt_barrier, Opt_err, Opt_resize, Opt_usrquota,
-	Opt_grpquota
+	Opt_grpquota, Opt_metacluster
 };

 static match_table_t tokens = {
@@ -808,6 +811,7 @@ static match_table_t tokens = {
 	{Opt_quota, "quota"},
 	{Opt_usrquota, "usrquota"},
 	{Opt_barrier, "barrier=%u"},
+	{Opt_metacluster, "metacluster"},
 	{Opt_err, NULL},
 	{Opt_resize, "resize"},
 };
@@ -1140,6 +1144,9 @@ clear_qf_name:
 		case Opt_bh:
 			clear_opt(sbi->s_mount_opt, NOBH);
 			break;
+		case Opt_metacluster:
+			set_opt(sbi->s_mount_opt, METACLUSTER);
+			break;
 		default:
 			printk (KERN_ERR
 				"EXT3-fs: Unrecognized mount option \"%s\" "
diff -uprdN linux-2.6.23mm1-clean/include/linux/ext3_fs.h
linux-2.6.23mm1-ext3mc/include/linux/ext3_fs.h
--- linux-2.6.23mm1-clean/include/linux/ext3_fs.h	2007-10-17
18:31:43.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6.23mm1-ext3mc/include/linux/ext3_fs.h	2007-10-26
16:19:15.000000000 -0700
@@ -380,6 +380,7 @@ struct ext3_inode {
 #define EXT3_MOUNT_QUOTA		0x80000 /* Some quota option set */
 #define EXT3_MOUNT_USRQUOTA		0x100000 /* "old" user quota */
 #define EXT3_MOUNT_GRPQUOTA		0x200000 /* "old" group quota */
+#define EXT3_MOUNT_METACLUSTER		0x400000 /* Indirect block clustering */

 /* Compatibility, for having both ext2_fs.h and ext3_fs.h included at once
*/
 #ifndef _LINUX_EXT2_FS_H
@@ -493,6 +494,7 @@ struct ext3_super_block {
 #ifdef __KERNEL__
 #include 
 #include 
+#include 
 static inline struct ext3_sb_info * EXT3_SB(struct super_block *sb)
 {
 	return sb->s_fs_info;
@@ -722,6 +724,11 @@ struct dir_private_info {
 	__u32		next_hash;
 };

+/* Special bh flag used by the metacluster readahead logic. */
+enum ext3_bh_state_bits {
+	EXT3_BH_PREFETCH = BH_JBD_Sentinel,
+};
+
 /* calculate the first block number of the group */
 static inline ext3_fsblk_t
 ext3_group_first_block_no(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long group_no)
@@ -730,6 +737,24 @@ ext3_group_first_block_no(struct super_b
 		le32_to_cpu(EXT3_SB(sb)->s_es->s_first_data_block);
 }

+static inline void
+ext3_set_buffer_prefetch(struct buffer_head *bh)
+{
+	set_bit(EXT3_BH_PREFETCH, &bh->b_state);
+}
+
+static inline void
+ext3_clear_buffer_prefetch(struct buffer_head *bh)
+{
+	clear_bit(EXT3_BH_PREFETCH, &bh->b_state);
+}
+
+static inline int
+ext3_buffer_prefetch(struct buffer_head *bh)
+{
+	return test_bit(EXT3_BH_PREFETCH, &bh->b_state);
+}
+
 /*
  * Special error return code only used by dx_probe() and its callers.
  */
@@ -752,6 +777,9 @@ extern int ext3_bg_has_super(struct supe
 extern unsigned long ext3_bg_num_gdb(struct super_block *sb, int group);
 extern ext3_fsblk_t ext3_new_block (handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
 			ext3_fsblk_t goal, int *errp);
+extern int ext3_new_indirect_blocks(handle_t *handle, struct inode *,
+				unsigned long group_no, unsigned long *,
+				ext3_fsblk_t new_blocks[]);
 extern ext3_fsblk_t ext3_new_blocks (handle_t *handle, struct inode
*inode,
 			ext3_fsblk_t goal, unsigned long *count, int *errp);
 extern void ext3_free_blocks (handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
@@ -870,6 +898,25 @@ extern const struct inode_operations ext
 extern const struct inode_operations ext3_symlink_inode_operations;
 extern const struct inode_operations ext3_fast_symlink_inode_operations;

+/*
+ * ext3_get_metacluster_range:
+ *
+ * 	Determines metacluster block range for all block groups of the file
+ * 	system. Number of metacluster blocks:
+ *	= 2 * (blocks_per_group / block_pointers_per_metablock)
+ *	= 2 * (blocks_per_group / (block_size / 4))
+ *	= (8 * blocks_per_group) / block_size
+ */
+static inline void
+ext3_get_metacluster_range(struct super_block *sb,
+				ext3_grpblk_t *mc_start,
+				ext3_grpblk_t *mc_end)
+{
+	*mc_start = EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb) / 2;
+	*mc_end = *mc_start +
+		((EXT3_BLOCKS_PER_GROUP(sb) << 3) >> EXT3_BLOCK_SIZE_BITS(sb))
+		- 1;
+}

 #endif	/* __KERNEL__ */

diff -uprdN linux-2.6.23mm1-clean/include/linux/jbd.h
linux-2.6.23mm1-ext3mc/include/linux/jbd.h
--- linux-2.6.23mm1-clean/include/linux/jbd.h	2007-10-17
18:31:43.000000000 -0700
+++ linux-2.6.23mm1-ext3mc/include/linux/jbd.h	2007-10-26
15:59:38.000000000 -0700
@@ -294,6 +294,7 @@ enum jbd_state_bits {
 	BH_State,		/* Pins most journal_head state */
 	BH_JournalHead,		/* Pins bh->b_private and jh->b_bh */
 	BH_Unshadow,		/* Dummy bit, for BJ_Shadow wakeup filtering */
+	BH_JBD_Sentinel,	/* Start bit for clients of jbd */
 };

 BUFFER_FNS(JBD, jbd)
 
CD: 4ms